Should have read this beforehand =(





1. General comments: Keep the report concise and focused- rambling, excessively long reports do not necessarily collect more marks. Word-processed reports are easier to read, but hand-written is acceptable if clear and legible. If you are using a word processing package, use a minimum of 10-point size font, with 1.5 line spacing- this makes it easier to read and for your demonstrator to write in feedback comments. Note that graphs must be drawn by hand- computer-generated graphs are not acceptable. It sounds obvious, but please make sure that your name and that of your demonstrator is written at the top of page 1 of your report. Please staple all the sheets of your report together.

Other general guidelines on writing lab reports are given in the BMS-1 study guide (and reproduced on page 2 of this document).

2. The report: Give your report a logical format-

· a BRIEF ‘Introduction’ section outlining the aims of the experiment. Give some background information- what is the role of alkaline phosphatase? Is it used as a diagnostic indicator? A third to half a page is adequate here.

· Materials and Methods section- this is an outline of the methodology. An extensive, detailed reproduction of the methods in the workbook is not needed, but you should specifically mention any changes or modifications introduced by you. Explain why you introduced these changes.

· Results section- clearly state the outcome of the experiments. When giving numerical values that you have determined experimentally, make sure you give the correct units. Data should be presented on suitable graphs. Why not give each graph a figure number? It’s then easier to direct the reader of the report to the appropriate data presentation by referring to the appropriate figure number in the text. This is how it is done in scientific papers.

· Conclusion. Do not simply reiterate the results- explain what they mean. We are also looking for the ability to critically evaluate the experiment. How could you have improved the quality of the data? Where might errors have crept in? What are the key criteria that make an enzyme assay suitable as a tool to aid clinical diagnosis? Does this assay fit those criteria?

3. Clinical case questions: Keep your answers focused. There should be no need to exceed one A4 page in total for the answers of all three questions. You are expected to come up with a specific diagnosis for each case. Explain how you arrived at your diagnosis. Where relevant, outline how you were able to eliminate other potential diagnoses from each case.


1. General

Please make sure that you read this part and the following sections very carefully so that misunderstandings do not arise later on.

During Biomedical Sciences-1 you will be required to submit written reports for some of your laboratory experiments. These must be prepared and handed in to your demonstrator for assessment by the date specified. Your marked report will contain written feedback in the form of specific comments and guidance. You should ensure that you understand all the points raised.

Assessment may be summative, where the mark will form part of your overall assessment for the course (see the previous section on ‘Assessment’), or it may be formative, where the mark will not contribute to your final assessment but the aim is primarily to help you understand how to improve your report writing skills. In 2008, Biological Molecules Work Session 5 “Alkaline Phosphatase: So what can enzymes tell us?” is a summative assessment contributing 33% of your marks for this ICU. The write-up for this practical will take the form of a short lab report and written answers to some theory questions relating to clinical cases. As practice for writing up this summative assessment, you will also prepare a short lab report for part of Biological Molecules Work Session 2 “Protein Purification”. Your demonstrator will give you feedback on this formative assessment before the deadline for handing in the summative assessment lab report (see ‘Assessment’ section earlier in this Study Guide for hand-in dates). To help you, advice and guidelines on lab report writing are provided below.

2. Advice on preparing written reports

The essence of a written report is to communicate your findings and conclusions to someone else. Therefore, it must be readily intelligible to another reader and not just to you. It must be obvious what primary observations you made, how you processed the data, and what your conclusions are.

For these reasons you will have to give considerable thought to how you organise your reports. While it is impossible to give definitive rules, each case having to be taken on its own, the following is given to assist you:

§ Your Report should be organised in sections: Introduction (a brief resumé of why the experiment was done); Methods (in general merely refer to the sections of this workbook; do not rewrite the instructions); Results and Conclusions.

§ You will save time if you have read and understood the practical notes before you do the experiment and you have recorded your data in a suitable form during the experiment.

§ Do not waste time rewriting the data you recorded in the laboratory to achieve a pristine copy.

§ Show any calculations in full so they can be checked but for repetitive calculations show only a specimen in full.

§ Remember that a numerical result usually cannot be given without units.

Tables, bar charts and graphs are good ways of displaying your results and conclusions. However, they should be as simple as possible, consistent with accuracy and conveying the necessary information. Each must have a concise informative title. The test of a good display item is that it conveys a clear message without the need for extensive reference to the text.

3. Drawing graphs

Graphs are a great visual aid and are frequently used to represent the results of experiments. Relationships between measured quantities, errors in measurements and the presence of anomalous measurements are often readily apparent. Graphs allow straightforward averaging of experimental measurements, interpolation between measurements and determination of the equation relating measured quantities.

§ Give your graph a title

§ Label both axes to show clearly what variable you are plotting, and its units.

§ Choose the axis scale to make plotting simple, e.g. let 10 small divisions equal 1, 2, 5, 10, etc. It takes longer, and you are more likely to make a mistake, if you choose a difficult scale.

§ Choose the ranges of the axes so that the points are suitably spread out on the graph paper and not all cramped into one corner - this may mean excluding zero from the axis.

§ Plot the independent variable along the horizontal axis and the dependent variable along the vertical axis.

§ Plot the experimental points clearly. Tiny dots may be confused with dirt on the graph paper and big dots give loss of precision. Either or ¤ are preferable. When you are plotting more than one set of data on a graph use different symbols.

§ When taking readings, generally spread them out evenly over the range of values of the quantity measured. The exceptions to this are when you want to measure an intercept (e.g. 1/V vs 1/S in a Lineweaver-Burk plot, see Biological Molecules Works Sessions 4 and 5), when it is desirable to have a few extra points close to the axis, or if there is a change in the shape of the graph (e.g. a peak) when extra points in this area will give greater precision.

§ Draw a straight line or a smooth curve through points plotted on the graph, rather than joining up successive points by short straight lines. If the points show wide 'scatter' due to experimental error, the best smooth curve or straight line should be drawn through the points, as illustrated by the examples below. Note that the eventual line may not actually pass through any of the experimental points. Deciding on the best line requires practice, but as a rule the points should be evenly distributed on either side of the line.

Note: All graphs must be hand drawn. Computer produced graphs are not acceptable.



Stay awake Leel!!

With midterms and final exams rearing their very ugly heads, you’re probably finding thatHow to Stay Awake While Studying study time is increasingly important. Too bad you have a job, clubs, a roommate, friends, family, dorm-room sleep hours (read: 3am bedtime), a cafeteria diet, and a bunch of classes wearing you down. Once you start reading that text book, suddenly a nice nap seems like a much better idea.

Read on to find out how to keep yourself awake, even if you’restudying in the wee hours of the morning:

  1. Drink a Lot of Water
    Remember this from my tips on how to stay awake in class? Well, water is even better for staying up when you’re studying. Dehydration can make you sleepy, so keeping your body hydrated will stave off those symptoms. If you are really sleepy, drink a lot of water to make sure you stay up—if you have to get up to go to the bathroom, it will definitely keep you awake! (Weird, but it works!)
  2. Take Breaks
    Your brain needs to rest if you want to study hard for a long time AND do well on your test. Schedule out your time so you can take a break—I would study for 45 minutes, break for 15, and so forth. Set the alarm on your cell phone so you don’t forget (or if you’re afraid you’ll fall asleep). Watch a TV show, talk to a friend, read a book, or listen to some music—but nothing school related at all!
  3. Exercise
    Exercise can be a great way to wake yourself up—take a short walk, dance to some music on your iPod, or head over to the gym for a little while. Taking a shower after a workout can wake you up even more.
  4. Don’t Study Somewhere Comfortable
    Don’t curl up on the common room couch or lean against some pillows in bed and expect to make it through 50 pages of text—getting comfortable is a sure fire way to sleep through your study time. Go somewhere with good, strong lighting, a non-squishy chair, and a table or desk. Sit up while you study, and change positions now and then.
  5. Eat a Snack
    Get your blood sugar up by eating a healthy snack (junk food will just give you a burst of energy but then you’ll crash). Apples are a good food to help you keep your blood sugar stable so you can stay awake (a lot of people say they will wake you up better than caffeine!)

Remember, I also shared some ideas to help you stay awake in class, so if you’re really sleepy, you might want to try those, too! Good luck!

My PPD First Essay

I didn't spend much of my time on this. No wonder it's terrible! whatever =))



STUDENT ID - 200449637



A. Before the visit -

Few days before the community visit took place, my partner and I discussed on how to get there. We divided our tasks in order to make things easier. During the day of the visit, we gathered at the Parkinson Building before we took a bus there.

B. Upon arrival –

Once we got off from the bus, we took a walk to get to the venue. By having known the building is a red triple-storey building, it wasn’t much a help since we got lost after half an hour walk in search of the venue. We asked the public whether they know where the building is, but none of them seemed to be familiar with the place. Alternatively, we used GPS navigator to track our location and luckily we found the building minutes later.

C. At the venue -

We received a warm welcome by the officers there. We were briefed about the nature of working by the chief officer and were made familiarized with the working areas for the workers. She assigned one of her colleagues to take us for a walk to the vendor selling points where we were given the chance to make interviews with the magazine vendors.

D. The interviews –

We had the chance to interview seven vendors from various backgrounds. The summary of the interview is as written below.

1. Our first stop was five minute walk from the building. We met one old female vendor sitting aside the pedestrian walkway when the officer introducing us to her. She was happy to get to know that we were medical students and without any reluctance she allowed us to interview her. Generally, she was satisfied with the healthcare services she received mainly from the NHS.

2. Then, we proceeded our journey to meet the second vendor, Mr. N. He was totally different from our first interviewee which he was rather a plainspoken person. He told that the doctors are being discriminative in treating patients. He also suggested that the doctors must have more understanding and care towards patients regardless of any preferences.

3. Next, we had the chance to interview Mr. R which he had more positive feedbacks with regard to the NHS. For him the doctors are the persons who he can confer his trust upon. He also agreed that the doctors are capable in simplifying his understanding of health complications that he’s in.

4. Next we met one cheerful vendor who welcomes us with warmth. He was rather positive in his response towards the healthcare system in the UK. As in his response, the doctors are seen as more approachable and reliable. He has never had any bad experiences with the NHS.

5. After that, we met Mr. R who simply described the healthcare system in the UK as useless. He had once broken his pelvis in which he most probably gets retained by hospital to receive intensive care. In contrast his request to get medication was not entertained by the doctors and had to walk back home with such a dreadful condition.

6. The next vendor felt he was under oppression by the healthcare system due to inequality of treatment received. He had no chance to have a two ways communication with doctors. The doctors were described as not having an eye contact with the patients.

7. The last vendor we interviewed also provides us with negative response. This lady mentioned that doctors are not a good listener. They also do show discrimination among their patients.

E. What surprised me-

During the briefing was given, I was surprised to get to know that this magazine company has been employing homeless people to be their vendors. I was amazed with the kindness of the nature of this company in giving chances to these unfortunate people to earn a living. I hope these people will have the strength to continue their living to move them ahead towards betterment in life.

Besides, I am also surprised with the openness of the vendors to spend some of their time to take part in the interview although busy with their selling of magazines.

F. What I have learnt-

In this visit, I’ve learnt a lot from reviews regarding the healthcare system in the UK by the vendors. Doctors must never show favoritism among their patients. Besides, the doctors must be approachable among the patients at the same time provide comfort to them. Discrimination towards certain group of people also ought to be demolished to create integrity between doctors and patients. With the good doctors-patients relationship, the healthcare system would be even more successful in providing healthcare to the public.